In addition to above, there are numerous private terminals in Ambarli Area of the city for various cargo types.
Istanbul also accomodates Bosphorus Strait, which together with Dardanelles Strait, connect the Black Sea and the Meditarennean. Vessels transitting Bosphorus can receive services such as crew exchange,
bunkering, delivery of supplies and spares etc. at the southern anchorage area of Bosphorus off Istanbul.
There are also numerous shipyards in Tuzla Area of the City.
With two International Airports, the city is the nearest arrival and departure point for crew exchanges to be effected at Izmit Bay.